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环球教育 > 环球干货 >【李卓伦】——浅析目的观点类单选题的解题思路
【李卓伦】——浅析目的观点类单选题的解题思路
2018-04-20 04:49:16| 上海环球教育| 雅思
雅思阅读单选题可分为以下三类:细节信息类,标题主旨类,目的观点类。对于前两类单选题,多数考生有着较为清晰的认识,然而对于目的观点类单选题,许多考生存在较大解题误区,今天环球教育名师李卓伦老师为各位烤鸭带来了目的观点类单选题的解题思路。

       从内容上看,雅思阅读单选题可分为以下三类:细节信息类,标题主旨类,目的观点类。对于前两类单选题,多数考生有着较为清晰的认识:细节信息类考察筛选细枝末节的信息点的能力,标题主旨类考察通读全文、归纳概括的能力。然而对于目的观点类单选题,许多考生存在较大解题误区,今天环球教育名师李卓伦老师为各位烤鸭带来了目的观点类单选题的解题思路。

·      什么是目的观点类单选题?
       目的观点类单选题是类以作者目的、态度、观点、情绪为考察对象的题型。其形式为:就文章中事例或言论进行提问,询问作者援引某事例的目的,或作者对某事、某言论的态度、看法。

·     目的观点类单选题的判定
      当题干主语为the writer/author/passage/example等词,且题目包含下列标志词时,可判定为目的观点类单选题:
 think/suggest/prove/show/demonstrate/illustrate/aim/purpose

·     目的观点类单选题的常见误区
     受中学语文阅读题影响,遇到目的态度类单选题时,许多考生不自觉地选择通过“脑补”解题。考生误以为作者的目的、意图蕴藏于行文之中,需通读上下文自行揣摩得出。结果往往是冥思苦想,上下求索,却仍百思不得其解。
其实,雅思考作为项纯粹的语言能力测,其阅读题仅牵涉到对原文的理解,无需对原文内容进行发散性的赏析解读。作者的写作目的和对某事的观点在原文必定有清晰明确的表达。我们要做的只是锁定包含作者目的或观点的语句。

雅思阅读

·     目的观点类单选题的解题思路
      通常,为加强说服力,观点与其例证总是联系紧密、相去不远:或先提观点,紧接着便辅以例证;或以例证开头,随即由例证引出观点。因此,我们只需定位相关事例或言论,并在这些内容前后搜索作者观点,雅思阅读题目便迎刃而解。
      例1:C6T4P3 - Q33
      The writer thinks that the declaration ‘There is no bullying at this school’
      A     is no longer true in many schools.
      B     was not in fact made by many schools.
      C     reflected a lack of concern.
      D     reflected a lack of knowledge and resources.
     本题询问作者对‘There is no bullying at this school’言论的观点看法。我们先要做的就是在原文找到引号圈定的这条言论——Until recently, not much was known about the topic, and little help was available to teachers to deal with bullying. Perhaps as a consequence, schools would often deny the problem. ‘There is no bullying at this school’ has been a common refrain, almost certainly untrue. 我们看到,‘There is no bullying at this school’即schools would often deny the problem的具体表现。而perhaps as a consequence说明,前句即作者眼中‘There is no bullying at this school’这言论产生的原因。将前句Until recently……与各选项比对我们不难发现,D选项中的a lack of knowledge正好对应‘not much was known about the topic’;(a lack of) resources正好对应‘and little help was available to teachers’。由于任何结果 (consequence) 定程度上都是对其原因的反映 (reflected) ,故该题正确选项为D。
       例2:C8T2P3 – Q33
       The experiment described in paragraph B
       A    shows how we make use of smell without realizing it.
       B    demonstrates that family members have a similar smell.
       C    proves that a sense of smell is learnt.
       D    compares the sense of smell in males and females.
       观察选项可知,本题询问引用某实验的目的。先,由题干提供的信息直接在文章B段定位到该实验 (experiment) ——In one well-known test, women and men were able to distinguish by smell alone clothing worn by their marriage partners from similar clothing worn by other people. 接着,将各选项与实验的前后句对比可发现,A项shows how we make use of smell without realizing it与实验后句‘Most of the subjects would probably never have given much thought to odour as a cue for identifying family members before being involved in the test’完美对应。其中,A项前半段make use of smell对应原文后半句odour as a cue for identifying family members,后半段without realizing it对应原文前半句never have given much thought。故正确选项为A。
       例3: C7T1P3 – Q29
       In this passage, the author uses the examples of a book and a lecture to illustrate that
       A     both of these are important for developing concentration.
       B     his theory about methods of learning is valid.
       C     reading is a better technique for learning than listening.
       D     we can remember things more easily under hypnosis.
       显然,本题询问作者引用本书和堂课的目的。先,我们在文章2段定位到本书和堂课两个例子——If we think of a book we studied months or years ago……if we think of a lecture we listened to with great concentration…… 通读两个例子的前句we know from our experience that we often remember what we have perceived peripherally, long after we have forgotten what we set out to learn和后句even if these peripheral details are a bit elusive, they come back readily in hypnosis or when we relive the event imaginatively, as in psychodrama. The details of the content of the lecture, on the other hand, seem to have gone forever可知,作者的观点是:次要细节 (what we have perceived peripherally/peripheral details) 比关键内容 (what we set out to learn/content of the lecture) 更让人印象深刻 (remember…long after…/come back readily…have gone forever) 。而A项是说两个例子对集中注意力的重要性。C项是说读与听相比是更好的学习技巧。D项是说我们更容易在催眠状态下进行回忆。三项都与原文表达的意思不符。只有B项,虽然没有具体指明作者的理论 (theory) 到底是什么,但依照正常逻辑,援引的事例必定服务于文章——亦即作者的论点。短中取长,故该题选择B。
       从以上三道例题我们不难看出,目的观点类单选题无须考生捕风捉影、揣摩作者心理。作者的观点在文章中都有开门见山、直截了当的阐述,只是采取同义替换的方式呈现。雅思培训老师表明只需定位相关事例或言论,并将各选项与事例或言论的前后内容两相对照,选出关联度高项即可。希望各位烤鸭能从中有所收获,将目的观点类单选题化繁为简

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